Ibn 'Arabî is also the author of a work called Naqsh al-fusûs (the "Imprint" or principles and essential elements of the Fusûs al-hikam, which is the seal of his. Sufis designate in their technical vocabulary as the Great Man (al-Insân al-Kabîr), for the angels are to it as the spiritual (rûhânî) and sensory faculties are to the. Fusus al-Hikam The Seals of Wisdom Muhi-e-Din Ibn Arabi Table of Contents 1) The Seal of Divine Wisdom 4 in the Word of Adam 4 2) The Seal of Wisdom of.
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Fusus al Hikm by Ibn Arabi:(1) Arabic Text(2) Arabic text (word document)(3) Engish translation with Arabic text. (Fusus-al-Hikam) Urdu - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free. (Fusus-al-Hikam) Urdu. vinttililmelu.tk - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. fusus-al-hikam-Ibn-Arabi.
Vatican, — Stillman ed. Shared cults F. Hasluck, Christianity and Islam under the Sultans, 2 vols. Oxford, Slousch, Travels in North Africa Philadelphia, Chapter Burns, Islam under the Crusades: colonial survival in the thirteenth-century kingdom of Valencia Princeton, Art and architecture K.
Creswell, The Muslim Architecture of Egypt, 2 vols. Oxford, — 9. As pointed out by Chittick, man is qualified with the divine attributes of freedom because he is created upon the form of God imago Dei as called in Latinized Biblical interpretation. However, since wisdom and obvious benefit conform to the revealed law in terms of objective, God attaches value to it parallel to the law He Himself laid down.
He nevertheless did not make the former incumbent upon them. God has opened the door of mercy and grace between Himself and their hearts, placing the reveration of monasticism in their hearts without them being aware. For, these people set this law not on divine revelation and prophetic guidance, though they sought the pleasure of God.
In this process, the objectives of rules are given priority over their sources. But he must give him some reward. For a legally responsible person either obeys or disobeys the law.
The case of the obedient is too obvious to talk of. As with the disobedient, he through his prevalent state of disobedience seeks from God one of the two results: either forgiving or calling to account.
This is because God acts in accordance with His servant in his actions and states. This means that God makes His rewarding of the servant in accordance with the will and action of man. So, God only knows, wills, and decides the state that is entailed and required by the object itself. In conclusion, God forgives or calls to account, namely, punishes, His servant according to the state that he requires.
Since his state is determining, man may be regarded as giving existence to religion in this sense, too. For him, religion is surrendering, which is exactly subservience. And subservience takes place through something pleasant and unpleasant, which is the rewarding.
On the other hand, the second meaning of religion, that is, rewarding, involves two subjects, one of which is determining and the other is acting subject.
Ibn Al-Arabi's Fusus Al-Hikam: An Annotated Translation of "the Bezels of Wisdom"
While the former is man, the latter is the Real. While regarding the former as superior to the latter24, he however describes both as valid on the grounds of the conformity of objectives. The wise laws in the religion with people are not determined by revelation. They are enacted on the basis of wisdom, the obvious benefit, and needs.
One should note that these laws are in agreement with the divine law in terms of objectives, and not in terms of form and contents. Thus, he holds this belief in respect, maintaining that this belief is valid and God attaches value to acting upon it. In addition, he explains on the basis of the case of monasticism that these human laws are binding, suggesting that if one observes them, one gets divine recompensation, as if one disobeys, one gets divine retribution.
The case of monasticism is just an example, implying the general principle that one should comply with the rules set to achieve the pleasure of God. This cannot be hold to apply exclusively to the people of fatrah, i. We would like to explain this subject as the following: 24 Cf. What of the Real accrues to the contingent things are those which they impart to Him. The essences themselves that ontologically preexist in His knowledge determine their states.
So, no state comes into existence unless an essence entails it. Every state has a form. Since their states are different, the forms are different, too. As the states are different, the divine self- manifestations are also different. So any effect that will appear in man can only do so in accordance with a possible thing. Therefore, it is man himself, and not someone else, who causes the good and evil to appear in himself.
Man does good or bad to himself, and therefore it is man himself who is to be blamed or praised. For the divine self-manifestation takes place depending upon the relation between knowledge and the object of knowledge. In other words, man himself determines this reward. So human freedom seems to remain intact. This interpretation of religion suggests a semantic harmony between the inner and the outer for it seems to confirm the notion that religion is reward. Every servant of God gains existence through one of the states required by his essence that ontologically preexist in His knowledge.
In other words, God manifests Himself in a servant according to the state entailed by his essence. For this reason, the servant becomes either a praiseworthy or blameworthy person, and either a felicituous or wretched person. In the same vein, God manifests Himself in no essence through the states impossible for it.
For instance, mercy cannot be said to be a state entailed by a stone. The same holds true of the verse that tells of the offering of the Trust unto the heavens, the earth, and the hills, and their shrinking from bearing it and being afraid of it.
But man assumed it because his essence entailed bearing it. So the divine self-manifestation takes place according to the states which these quiddities possess as possibilities. There is no existence save the existence of the Real. The states of the contingent things thus are nothing other than the self-manifestation of the Real.
This word is employed to refer to the following of both good and bad things alike. And the forms are similar to each other. But humanity does not repeat itself. For, if it were to repeat itself, humanity, being one reality, would multiply, there arising many different humanities. So religion is a matter of self- repetition in one sense and not in another. The same holds true of the matter of rewarding for religion is a matter of rewarding in one respect and not in another. This is because rewarding is a possible state in the contingent things.
But though the senses perceive self-repetition, there is no self-repetition in reality. So it is clear that Being qua Being is identical with the relative existents in reality, otherwise they would not have existence, necessarily. It is said that Being does not apply to its individuals uniformly, for it applies to the existence of a cause and an effect through being prior and posterior, and to the existence of a substance and an accident through primacy or its lack thereof, and the existence of static and non-static through intensity or weakness; rather it applies to them through gradation.
Whatever is applied through gradation can be neither identical with the quiddity of a thing nor a part of it.
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If what is meant [by gradation] is priority or posteriority, primacy or lack thereof, intensity or weakness when applied to Being qua Being, this is inadmissible since these are all relative qualities that are conceivable only in relation to one another. Application of gradation is from the aspect of universality and generality, but Being qua Being is neither general nor specific.
If what is meant [by gradation] is that theyare joined to Being in relation to quiddities, this is correct, but it does not entail gradation in Being as it is since the aspect of the loci of accidentals is different from the aspect of Being.
This is precisely the view of the people of Allah, since they hold that as Being descends in the degrees of existence, it becomes manifest in the enclosures of contingency, and the multiplicity of intermediaries—its hiddenness intensifies, its manifestation and perfections weaken. Likewise, as its intermediaries decrease, its light is intensified, its manifestation strengthened, and its perfections and attributes appear.
In affirmation of this you should know that Being has manifestations in the noetic realm, just as it has manifestations in the external world.
Among them are general affairs and universals that do not have existence except in the noetic realm.
The ascription of Being to individuals related to quiddities through gradation is in light of noetic manifestation. However, from the aspect of its application—unconditionally—it is a genus that accepts predication and from the aspect of its being applied to species of a type subsumed under that natural universal, it is a general accident.
The same is true for everything that is described by gradation through its individuals. The disparity in the individual instances of Being is not in Being itself, rather it is in the manifestation of its properties, such as the agency and receptivity in cause and effect; and in its subsisting by itself in a substance, and does subsisting by itself in an accident; and in the intensity of manifestation in the static essence, and its weakness in the non-static essence.
Likewise, the disparity in human beings is not a disparity in the humanness itself, but in the manifestation of its properties in them. Were there some escape for Being from being identical with the realities of individuals, there would have been an escape for humanness from being identical with the reality of its individuals. The disparity found within human beings is not comparable to the disparity found in other creatures. And Allah is the Helper and upon Him we rely.
This degree, insofar as it conveys the manifestations of the names—which are the archetypes and realities—to the perfections appropriate to their potentialities in the external world, is called the Degree of Lordship. If it is conditioned by universals in them as permanent particulars, without any veil from their universals, it is the level of the name, the Merciful ar-Rahim , the Lord of Universal Soul d-nafs al-kulliya , also called the Tablet of Decree lawh al-qadr , the Guarded Tablet al-lawh al-mahfuz , and the Manifest Book al-hadith al-mubin.
If it is conditioned by receiving types, spiritual and corporeal, it is the level of the name the Receiver, the Lord of Universal Prime Matter, referred to as the Inscribed Book kitab al-manshur , and the Outstretched Parchment riqq al-manshur.
Ibn arabi muhyi al din ibn arabi fusus al hikam ed a
If it is conditioned by the ability to affect, it is the degree of the name the Active, also called the Originator al-mujid , the Creator al-khdliq , and the Lord of the Universal Nature rabb al-tabia cd-kulliya. That is why it is said that the First Intellect is the Spirit of Sanctity ruh al-qudus. What the former refer to as the Immaterial Rational Soul, the latter call the Heart, since universals are specified in it and witnessed individually therein.
What the former refer to as the Soul, they refer to as the Impressed Animal Soul. The degree of the Perfect Man consists of the collectivity of all divine and existential realms, from the universal and particular intellects and souls, and the degrees of nature to the final existential descent.
For that reason he stands as the vicegerent of Allah. If you have grasped this, then you will have realized the difference between the degrees of divinity, lordship, and existence. A certain scholar has made the Degree of Divinity identical with the First Intellect, due to the inclusiveness of the name the Compassionate al-Rahman of all other names, just as the name Allah is all-inclusive of them.
Although this is true in one aspect, the very fact that the name Beneficent is subsumed under the name Allah calls for a distinction between the two degrees. Remark It has been mentioned that all perfection that adheres to things through Being, essentially belongs to Being, for it is the Living, the Eternal, the all-Knowing, the One who wills, the Able by Essence. No attribute is superadded to the Essence, for there would arise the need—for it to bring forth those perfections—for another life, knowledge, power and will, since it is not possible to bring them forth except what it already possesses.
Although this is true from one perspective, from another perspective, Being at the Degree of Singularity al-ahadiya , negates all entification. There remains neither attribute, nor possessor of attributes, nor name, nor named, but only the Essence.
However, at the Degree of Unity al-wdhidiya , which is the level of the names and attributes, there are attributes, possessor of attributes, names and the named; it is the Degree of Divinity al-uluhiya.
The mind perceives [attributes] as being distinct, just as it separates mentally the attribute and the possessor of the attribute, although in actual existence they are one.
The mind perceives knowledge as being distinct from power and will just as [it perceives] a distinction between genus and differentium. However, in existence there is nothing other than the unitary Essence, just as in the external world [genus and differentium] combine in single thing, which is type. In this way, attributes become multiple, and through this multiplicity, the names and their manifestations become multiple. The divine realities are distinguished from one another so that knowledge, life and power, and other attributes each refer to both the Essence and its permanent reality.
There is distinction among the attributes because of their shared connotation ishtirak lafa , because these realities are from one perspective accidents because they are either purely relative attributes, essential attributes, attributes possessing relation, or substances from another perspective, in the case of immaterial beings, since their knowledge of their essences is one with their essences, from one aspect. Therefore, life, power, and will and the [unitary] Essence are exalted above being either substance or accident.
The meaning of this becomes clear for one to whom appears the pervasiveness of the divine Ipseity in all substances, with which these attributes are identical and from the fact that these realities are specific existents, and that the unitary Essence is absolute Being; that which is limited is the absolute with the addition of entification.
This also results from the manifestations of the Essence. These realities are neither substances nor accidents at times, given that they are necessary and pre-eternal, at other times, contingent substances occurring in time; and at other times they are accidents attached to substances.
Whoever perceives the reality of what has been described, and grasps the various perspectives, is extricated from doubts and misgivings. And Allah is the Guide. Given that the subject of Being is all-inclusive and lays out the foundation of every other science, any work that aims to outline the principles of mysticism must include a thorough investigation of the nature of Being.
Furthermore, by opening the work with the subject of Being, Qaysari elucidates the fundamental issues concerning the Unity of God, His attributes, and His relation to the world, in order to repudiate many of the accusations leveled against the Sufis.
Since many have misunderstood the sayings of the gnostics because of their lack of understanding of the existential world-view of Sufism, they have consequently failed to grasp complex ideas such as divine manifestations, unity within multiplicity, or attainment to God. Finally, as mentioned in the introduction, this science discusses the manifestation of the divine names, the methodology of wayfaring of the people of God, their practices, discipline, and the outcome of their efforts, and the result of their actions.
Thus, understanding God and His attributes is a prerequisite for understanding the method of wayfaring and its corollaries. Being, and that it is the Real The gnostic uses the term the Real al-haqq to refer to God, Almighty and is synonymous with the term Being. There are numerous meanings of the term al-haqq, that include truth, reality, fact, rightness, to be established, and necessary.
It is also one of the epithets of God, referring to the fact that He is the sole reality, the truth, the established, the necessary, the opposite of falsehood, and whose existence and reality are proved to be true. It also refers to absolute Being, the divine Essence, or that through which all things are known, so that the gnostic who obtains awareness of God, distinguishes that which is real and that which is false and illusory in existence. Furthermore, what is real is in opposition to what is illusory, and what is true is in opposition to falsehood, which is, in a sense, illusory as well.
God is real, established and the Necessary Being, and not the object of imagination, a mental construct, or an illusion. For this reason, the gnostics have used the term al-haqq to prevent any attribution of contingency to the Necessary Being, who is the sole reality. Furthermore, since al-haqq, refers to Being, when the gnostic discovers Being, he discovers God. In the terminology of the gnostics, God, the Real, al-haqq , and Being refer to one and the same reality.
Privative Properties of Being Being qua Being is neither external existence nor mental, since both these types of existence are manifestations of non-delimited Being. External existence is in contrast to mental existence, although in another sense, it is a general category that includes mental existence, which is a type of external existence.
Mental existence is a type of external existence that occurs in the mind of a perceiver. It is different from external existence in the specific sense since it does not possess the effects of the latter.
For example, a person may conceive of the concept of fire without experiencing some of the effects of fire such as heat. This is because absoluteness is itself a condition and is in contrast to limitedness. Each is a type of condition and cannot be posited for Being qua Being. In this regard, Imam Ali says: The foremost [stage] in religion is knowledge of Him, and the perfection of knowledge of Him is attesting to Him, and the perfection of attesting to Him is affirming His oneness, and the perfection of affirming His oneness is positing transcendence for Him, and the perfection of positing transcendence for Him is negating attributes for Him—for every attribute indicates that it is other than the attributed, and that the attributed is other than the attribute.
Here Imam Ali is referring to absolute Being or the divine Essence, which is beyond the limitation of attributes and conditions. In fact, it can be said that Being transcends existence, in that existence is a manifestation of Being, whereas, Being precedes its own manifestation and is not dependent on it.
It is neither universal nor particular. Attributes such as universality or particularity cannot be applied to Being qua being but only to its manifestations in various planes of existence. Only when Being is manifested through the agency of the divine names, does it become external, mental, universal or particular, unitary or multiple, in accordance with the respective plane of manifestation.It is like the colour which permeates the coloured.
Only a few of the people of Allah know it. That is also an effect of distance. There is a seal for each wisdom. It is the same as a mirror in the Visible world inasmuch as you see forms in it or He ransomed him by what occurred in Ibrahim's mind.
The large appears small in the small mirror and tall in the tall. Thus, being is more entitled to having knowledge, rather all perfections are necessary for it and all attributes are established by it, such as life, knowledge, will, power, hearing, vision, etc, for it is the Living, the Knower, the One who wills, the Powerful, the Hearing, the Seeing, by its own Essence not by means of anything else.
If the Real is the Outwardly Manifest. In that case, Being would not be any these, whether they are substances or accidents, as just mentioned, nor can its reality be known, even though it is knowable with respect to its ipseity.
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